Particle robots were simulated in an empty space environment with no gravity neither inertial forces. In this virtual conditions each particle robot can position and latch to other particles. The robots can move in 3D space and position ina 3D coordinate with a certain pose. The spines are able to latch to spines of other robots that are nearby. The particles were simulated moving in different frequencies and speeds, resulting in random pattern.
In a realistic setup, the particle robot must be able to submerge and control its position by rotating with the inner spherical mobile robot, together with the spines for balancing purposes underwater. Further, the spines of the robot must integrate an electromagnet or additional mechanisms for latching and connecting to other particle robots.
Virtual 3D robotic formation with particle robots.